Linux FHS (Filesystem Hierarchy Standard)

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Directory Description
/ Primary hierarchy root and root directory of the entire file system hierarchy.
/bin/ Essential command binaries that need to be available in single user mode; for all users, e.g., cat, ls, cp.
/boot/ Boot loader files, e.g., kernels, initrd; often a separate partition[8]
/dev/ Essential devices, e.g., /dev/null.
/etc/ Host-specific system-wide configuration files (the name comes from et cetera[9]).
/etc/opt/
Configuration files for /opt/.
/etc/X11/
Configuration files for the X Window System, version 11.
/etc/sgml/
Configuration files for SGML.
/etc/xml/
Configuration files for XML.
/home/ Users’ home directories, containing saved files, personal settings, etc.; often a separate partition.
/lib/ Libraries essential for the binaries in /bin/ and /sbin/.
/media/ Mount points for removable media such as CD-ROMs (appeared in FHS-2.3).
/mnt/ Temporarily mounted filesystems.
/opt/ Optional application software packages[10].
/proc/ Virtual filesystem documenting kernel and process status as text files, e.g., uptime, network. In Linux, corresponds to a Procfs mount.
/root/ Home directory for the root user.
/sbin/ Essential system binaries, e.g., init, route, mount.
/srv/ Site-specific data which is served by the system.
/tmp/ Temporary files (see also /var/tmp). Often not preserved between system reboots.
/usr/ Secondary hierarchy for read-only user data; contains the majority of (multi-)user utilities and applications.[11]
/usr/bin/
Non-essential command binaries (not needed in single user mode); for all users.
/usr/include/
Standard include files.
/usr/lib/
Libraries for the binaries in /usr/bin/ and /usr/sbin/.
/usr/sbin/
Non-essential system binaries, e.g., daemons for various network-services.
/usr/share/
Architecture-independent (shared) data.
/usr/src/
Source code, e.g., the kernel source code with its header files.
/usr/X11R6/
X Window System, Version 11, Release 6.
/usr/local/
Tertiary hierarchy for local data, specific to this host. Typically has further subdirectories, e.g., bin/, lib/, share/.[12]
/var/ Variable files—files whose content is expected to continually change during normal operation of the system—such as logs, spool files, and temporary e-mail files. Sometimes a separate partition.
/var/lib/
State information. Persistent data modified by programs as they run, e.g., databases, packaging system metadata, etc.
/var/lock/
Lock files. Files keeping track of resources currently in use.
/var/log/
Log files. Various logs.
/var/mail/
Users’ mailboxes.
/var/run/
Information about the running system since last boot, e.g., currently logged-in users and running daemons.
/var/spool/
Spool for tasks waiting to be processed, e.g., print queues and unread mail.
/var/spool/mail/
Deprecated location for users’ mailboxes.
/var/tmp/
Temporary files to be preserved between reboots.
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